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MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-2, Discussion- 1.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-2

"Sarvam  hyetad  Brahma,  ayam-atma Brahma,
so' yam-atma  catuspat."

sarvam - all;

hi - indded;

etat -this;

brahma - this (is)  BRAHMAM;

ayam atma brahma - this Self ( ATMA IN US ) is BRAHMAM;

sah - That ( BRAHMAM );

ayam atma - ( which is ) this Self ( ATMA IN US );

catuspat - ( is ) covered with four quarters ( PARTS ).

"All this is verily BRAHMAM. This is BRAHMAM. This JIVATMA ( ATMA WITHIN US ) has four quarters ( parts )."

Discussion-1.

In the last mantram the great Rishi summarizing his transcendental wisdom declared, "all this is, verily, "AUM".

Continuing the declaration, the Rishi is now giving a discourse to the student and he says, "all this is BRAHMAM."

Naturally, it is clear that the great Master is wanting the student to understand that AUM is BRAHMAM.

AUM is not only indicates the Spiritual Centre in the Individual, but also r…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 11.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 10.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 9.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 8.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 7.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 6.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."

Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;
Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;
etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;
idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;
tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );
upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;
bhutam  =  the  past;
bhavat  =  the  present;
bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;
iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );
sarvam  =  all  this;
Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;
yat  =  that  which  is;
ca  =  and;
anyat  =  anything  else;
trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;
tat  =  that;
api  =  also;
Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;
eva  =  only.

"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion- 5.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."


Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;

Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;

etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;

idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;

tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );

upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;

bhutam  =  the  past;

bhavat  =  the  present;

bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;

iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );

sarvam  =  all  this;

Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;

yat  =  that  which  is;

ca  =  and;

anyat  =  anything  else;

trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;

tat  =  that;

api  =  also;

Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;

eva  =  only.


"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion-4.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."


Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;

Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;

etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;

idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;

tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );

upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;

bhutam  =  the  past;

bhavat  =  the  present;

bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;

iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );

sarvam  =  all  this;

Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;

yat  =  that  which  is;

ca  =  and;

anyat  =  anything  else;

trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;

tat  =  that;

api  =  also;

Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;

eva  =  only.


"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion-3.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."


Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;

Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;

etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;

idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;

tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );

upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;

bhutam  =  the  past;

bhavat  =  the  present;

bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;

iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );

sarvam  =  all  this;

Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;

yat  =  that  which  is;

ca  =  and;

anyat  =  anything  else;

trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;

tat  =  that;

api  =  also;

Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;

eva  =  only.


"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  that…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1, Discussion-2.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."


Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;

Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;

etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;

idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;

tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );

upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;

bhutam  =  the  past;

bhavat  =  the  present;

bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;

iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );

sarvam  =  all  this;

Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;

yat  =  that  which  is;

ca  =  and;

anyat  =  anything  else;

trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;

tat  =  that;

api  =  also;

Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;

eva  =  only.  


"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  tha…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) Mantram-1

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

Mantram-1

"Harih  Aum,  Aum,-ityetad-aksharam-idam  sarvam

tasyopa-vyakhyanam  bhutam  bhavad-bhavisyad  iti

sarvam-onkara  eva,  yac-canyat-trikalatitam

tad-apy-onkara  eva."


Harih  Aum  =  symbol  of  para Brahmam;

Aum  iti  =  Omkara  ( iti )  thus;

etat  aksharam  =  this  syllable;

idam  sarvam  =  ( is )  all  this;

tasya  =  of  that  ( Omkara );

upa-vyakhyanam  =  a  clear  exposition;

bhutam  =  the  past;

bhavat  =  the  present;

bhavishyat  =  ( and )  the  future;

iti  =  thus  ( belonging  to );

sarvam  =  all  this;

Omkara  eva  =  ( is )  Omkara  only;

yat  =  that  which  is;

ca  =  and;

anyat  =  anything  else;

trikala  atitam  =  beyond  ( the  three  periods  of )  time;

tat  =  that;

api  =  also;

Omkarah  =  ( is )  Omkara;

eva  =  only.  


"Harih  Aum, Aum,  the  word,  is  all  this.  A  clear  explanation  of  it  is  ( the  following )" : -

"All  th…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) INTRODUCTION-5.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

INTRODUCTION-5.

A book of categories : -  Parakarana is a book of instructions ( "Upadesa Grantham" )  and true to its name in our text book, we find that every chapter is closed with useful and powerful instructions upon how an aspirant can grow to his maturity, and come to face and realise the Absolute Truth, the Subject -matter of the Scripture.

Gaudapada, taking the Scripture as the foundation, analyses the three states of Consciousness and their experiences to bring to our intellectual grasp the Eternal Truth that lies beyond the wakinh, dream, and deep sleep states  ----- the Turiya.

The End.

Next -Mantram-1
To be continued  ....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) INTRODUCTION-4.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

INTRODUCTION-4.

The  glosser  skips  over  expressions  that  are  not  materially  or  directly  useful  for  elaboration  of  his  particular  thesis.

At  the  same  time,  the  Karika  does  not  bring  forth  vividly  ideas  that  are  only  hinted  at  or  suggested  by  he  microscopic  expression  in  the  Upanishad.

Since  the  Mandukya  Upanishad  serves  as  the  very  framework  for  the  Gaudapada's  artistic  embroidery  in  philosophy,  this  chapter  is  called  as  "Agama Prakarana".

To be continued  ....

Swami Sri Adi Sankaracharya Idol

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) INTRODUCTION-3.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

INTRODUCTION-3.

The first chapter is termed as scriptural because the Upanishadik Mantra-s are given here with the Karika-stanzas apprehended to them at convenient points.

The 29 verses of Gaudapada do not strive to give a word - to - word  commentary upon the Upanishadik texts.

The Karika only tries to re-arrange the ideas of the Upanishad into a pattern which can easily convey to the readers the central point of the scripture  ---

the "Turiya", the Absolute Non-Dual Reality.

To be continued  ....



MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) INTRODUCTION-2.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

INTRODUCTION-2.

Note : link the Introduction-1, before start of this discussion ..

This confusion has come to the great French scholar mainly because of the plural usage in the term "Goudapadiya"; but venerable people are always addressed in plural, not only in Samakrtam but in English also; as in royal 'WE.'

'Gauda' may be the name of a class and the word 'Pada'is a honorific term.

Thus we may conclude that one great venerable sage hailing from Gauda-Desam was the author of the Karika.

To be continued  .....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : Chapter-1. "AGAMA PRAKARANA" ( The Scriptural Treatise ) INTRODUCTION-1.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD  

Chapter-1.

"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )

INTRODUCTION-1.  

This opening chapter of the Mandukya Upanishad with Gaudapada's Karika is called "the Ssriptural Treatise" because it contains the Upanishad portion also apart from the metrical verses in which the gloss has been written.

I had already explained that from the standpoint of Rrofessor Deussen the entire text-book is but Gaudapada's own.

Now, Dr. Waaleser, in his Der Altere Vedanta, tries to prove that Gaudapadaiya Karika is the name of a book in four chapters and not indicative of the name of the author.

According to him, the School of Vedanta prevalent at that time in Gauda-Desa ( in North Bengal ) had certain theories which were codified into these four chapters and hence are called together under one volume as Gaudapadiya Karika.

In short, it is "a case of a book evolving an author and not an author evolving a book."\

To be continued  .....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-19.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
     INTRODUCTION-19.

The Agama Prakarana consists of the twelve mantra-s of the Upanishad, with the Karika-mantra-s thrown in between at convenient points where the glosser wants to clarify the expressions and the opinions of the Sruti.

We have already explained earlier that Karika is not Bhashyam ( commentary )  ... gloss is not a commentary.

Glosser's job is well done when he has explained one aspect of the entire Sastram.

His is the job to explain expound a part or a portion of a philosophical system, while Sastram plans to exhaust completely an entire system of thinking.


As we go on, we shall try to introduce each Section with introduction which would give sufficient material to make you feel homely in each chapter.
END : MAIN INTRODUCTION OF THIS UPANISHAD.
Next :
Chapter-1.
"AGAMA PRAKARANA"
( The Scriptural Treatise )
INTRODUCTION-1.  
To be continued  .....



MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-18.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
     INTRODUCTION-18.

The  entire  text  of  the  Karika  falls  under  four  convenient  chapters.

Altogether  the  Karika  contains  215 Mantra-s  in  four  chapters : -

1. Agama Prakarana  ( On  Vedic  Text,  or  The  Scriptural  Treatise, Chapter :  1. -29 Mantra-s. ),

2. Vaitathya  Prakarana  ( On  Unreality  of  the  objective  world,  Chapter : 2. - 38 Mantra-s ),

3. Advaita Prakarana ( On  Non-Dualism, Chapter : 3. - 48 Mantra-s ),

4. and Alata  Santi  Prakarana ( On  Quenching  the  Fire-brand,  Chapter : 4. - 100 Mantra-s.)

To be continued  .....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-17.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
    INTRODUCTION-17.

Though  both  Vedantin  and  Mimamsaka-s  accept  that  the  scripture  in  itself  is  certainly  a  great  argument  to  believe  and  that  the  authority  of  scripture  is  unquestionable,  yet  they  both  have  also  accepted  the  other  canons  of  interpretation  of  Sruti.

Of  them,  the  major  canon  of  interpretation,  accepted  by  both,  is  called  "UPAPATTI" ( logical  reasoning ).

Even  if  many  Sruti-texts  repeatedly  declare  with  all  authority  of  truth  "FIRE IS COLD,"  it  will  not  make  the  fire  tame.

In  such  places  we  have  to  understand  that  the  style  is  metaphorical  and  a  reasonable  meaning  is  to  be  given  to  the  text.

Thus  in  the  text-book  chosen  by  us  for  our  Yajna-study,  mantra-s  provide  the  enunciation  of  Truth,  and  the  Karika  points  out  a  line  of  enquiry  and  thinking.

Gaudapada  in  his  gloss  provides  us  with  the  staple  food  for …

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-16.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
    INTRODUCTION-16.

Mandukya,  though  small,  occupies  a  very  high  place  in  the  Vedantik  literature,  because  it  contains  assertions  of  "Non-dualism."

One  of  the  passages  considered  as  a  Major  Text   ( Mahavakya)  for  the  purpose  of  deep  meditation  is  from  this  Upanishad.

We  have  for  the  purposes  of  Vedanta  Sadhana  four  great  Mahavakya-s,  each  taken  from  a  Veda;  the  passage  chosen  from  the  Atharvana  Veda,  namely,  " Ayam  Atma  Brahma"  ( This  Atma  is  the  BRAHMAM   .....  this  personal  'I'  is  the  Universal  'I' )  comes  from  this  Upanishad  ( Mantram-2. )

To be continued  .....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-15.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
   INTRODUCTION-15.
It  is  possible,  that  Swami  Sri  Adi  Sankaracharya  did  not  quote  the  big  chunks  of  prose  as  such,  probably  because  it  did  not  afford  him  the  facility  of  serving  his  literary  purpose.
They  did  not  directly  serve  in  expressing  his  ideas,  nor  did  they  fall  to  the  rhythm  of  Swamiji's  chiselled  prose-melody.
It  would  be  better  appreciated   if  we  understand  that  Swamiji  was  not  only  a  Philosopher  but  also  a  Master  artist  at  his  pen.
To be continued  ....


MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-14.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
   INTRODUCTION-14.

I  am  giving  even  this  much  of  detail  only  to  give  you  a  sample  of  how  men  of  intelligence
and  scholarship  have  been  wasting  their  talents,  and  yet  not  gaining  the  real  benefits  out  of  the  study  of  the  Upanishad-s.

To  declare  vaguely  that  Adi  Sankaracharya  had  never  quoted  Mandukya  in  his  Bhashya  would  be  a  very  rough  and  ready  method  in  this  delicate  operation.

In  fact  many  great  writers  before  Adi  Sankaracharya  had  quoted  the  Upanishad-s  claiming  them  to  be  from  Mandukya;  also  in  many  places  in  his  commentary  we  can  smell  the  words  of  Swami  Adi  Sankaracharya  as  belching  through  a  heart  soaked  with  Mandukya - Ideas.   
To be continued  ....

Route and Camp of Amarnath Yatra

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-13.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
   INTRODUCTION-13.

This  takes  us  to  a  very  confusing  problem  in  the  study  of  the  Mandukya  Upanishad.

There are  some  like  Professor  Deussen,  who  claim  and  profess  to  prove  that  even  the  twelve  prose  passages  belong  to  Sri  Gaudapada;  that  is  to  say  according  to  the  Professor  ( in  his  work  The  philosophy  of  the  Upanishad-s), there  is  no  Mandukya  as  such  but  the  entire  literature  is  only  a  Parakarna  Granth,  a  treatise  on  Vedanta  categories.

In  order  to  prove  his  theory,  he  quotes  Swami  Adi Sankaracharya  and  says  that in   the  eyes  of   Swamiji  this  is  no  Upanishad  at  all  but  it  is  only  'a  book  of  categories' ( Prakarna  Granth )  because  in  none  of  his  genuine  works  has  Swamiji  quoted Mandukya.

Thus  it  is  far  cry  from  Sri  Madhavacharya  to  Professor  Deussen;  Madhavacharya  claiming  that  even  the  karika  belongs  to  the  Upanishad,  which  Deu…

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD : INTRODUCTION-12.

MANDUKYA UPANISHAD
  INTRODUCTION-12.

As  we  had  explained  earlier  ( in  the  Kena  and  the  Kathopanishad  blogs ) the  Upanishad-s  do  not  generally  have  an  author  for  these  great  master  pieces  of  literature.

Thus,  according  to  Sri  Madhavacharya  and  his  followers,  Vyasa  Tirtha  and  Srinivasa,  both  the  prise  passages  of  the  Upanishad  and  the  metrical  verses  contained  in  the  first  chapter  were  together  handed  down  by  Varuna  in  the  foem  of  a  frog  ( Mandukya ).

Mythological  temperaments  may  feel  satisfied  with  an  explanation  of  this  type,  but,  probably,  this  is  not  so  convincing  to  the  modern  university-educated  students. 

To be continued  ....