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Mundakopanishad : [Criticism of rituals -- devoid of knowledge ( Upasana ) ]. Mantram-7.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )



Mantram-7. [Criticism  of  rituals --  devoid  of  knowledge  ( Upasana ) ].



Discussion-2. "Eighteen  supporters  of  Yajnam..........."



Eighteen  supporters  of  yajnam  are  constituted  of  the  sixteen  priests  ( ritvik-s )  along  with  the  householder  ( Yajamanan )  and  his  wife.

These  eighteen  are  important  limbs  in  some  kind  of  rituals,  which  are  performed  with  some  given  set  of  selfish  desires.

Please  note  that  all  'karma-s,'  at  all  times,  in  all  instances  need  not  have  a  householder  with  a  wife  to  preside  over  it.



As  though  not  satisfied  with  merely  condemning  such  a  blind  ritualistic  fervour  in  the  "ignorant fanatics,"  Sruti,  in  all  kindness,  is  courting  their  imagination  by  threatening  them  with  unending  sorrows,  in  case  they  refuse  to  lift  their  moorings  and  sail  out  into  the  open  seas  of  adventure  see…

Mundakopanishad : [Criticism of rituals -- devoid of knowledge ( Upasana ) ]. Mantram-7.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )



Mantram-7. [Criticism  of  rituals --  devoid  of  knowledge  ( Upasana ) ].



Discussion-1. " We  Hindus,  the  Bharatheeya  confuse  and  ignorant  about  rituals ...."




Rituals   have  certainly  a  place  in  the  technique  of  self-perfection.

They  are  means  to  a  greater  end.

But,  a  majority  of   Bharatheeya-nivasi-s  (  Hindu-s  )  have  come  to  confuse  the  means  to  be  the  fulfilment  in  themselves.

They  refuse  to  rise  higher  than  the  rituals,  and  'Mother  Sruti'  is  here  mercilessly  whipping  such  ignorant  devotees  to  greater  endeavour  and  higher  achievements.  

Next : Discussion-2. "Eighteen  supporters  of  Yajnam..........."

To be continued  .....





Mundakopanishad : [Criticism of rituals -- devoid of knowledge ( Upasana ) ]. Mantram-7.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )



Mantram-7. [Criticism  of  rituals --  devoid  of  knowledge  ( Upasana ) ].



Plava  hyete  adrdha  yajna-rupa


astadasoktam - avaram  yesu  karma


atac - chreyo  ye  bhinandanti  mudha


jara - mrtyum  te  punare - vapi  yanti.



plavah  =  boats;

hi  =  verily;

ete  =  these;

adrdha  =  undependable,  frail;

yajna-rupa  =  form  ( or boat )  of  yajnam;

astadasa  uktam  =  is  sais  to  be  manned  by  eighteen  ( supporters )  in  number;

avaram  =  the  inferior,  lower;

yah  =  he;

esu  =  on  whom;

karma  =  ceremonial;

etat  =  this;

sreyah  =  ( as )  the  highest;

ye  =  these;

abhinandanti  =  acclaim;

mudhah  =  the  ignorant  persons;

jara  =  old  age;

mrtyum  =  death;

te  =  they;

punah  =  again  and  again;

eva  =  alone;

api  =  even;

yanti  =  go ( are  subject  to ).



"Undependable  ( frail )  is  that  boat  of  Yajnam,  is  said  to  be  manned  by  eighteen  supporters  on  whom  depend  the  lower  ceremonials. …

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-6.



Ehy-ehiti  tam-ahutayah  suvarcasah


suryasya  rasmibhir-yajamanam   vahanti,


priyam  vacam-abhivadantyo-rcayantya


esa  vah  punyah  sukrto  brahma-lokah.



ehi  =  come  hither;

ehi  =  come  hither;

iti  =  that;

tam  =  to  him;

ahutayah  =  oblations  ( homa dravyam-s );

suvarcasah  =  brilliant;

suryasya  =  of  the  sun;

rasmibhih  =  through  the  rays;

yajamanam  =  the  sacrificer  ( the  performer  of  homa yajnam );

vahanti  =  carry;

priyam  =  pleasant;

vacam  =  words;

abhivadantyah  =  addressing;

arcayantyah  =  praise;

esah  =  this;

vah  =  thy;

punyah  =  virtue  ( holy );

sukrtah  =  gained  by  good  karma-s  ( activities );

brahma  lokah  =  the  world  of  Brahma.




"Come  hither,  come  hither"  say  these  brilliant  oblations  unto  him  and  carry  the  sacrificer  through  the  rays  of  …

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-12. Summation....  "with  the  added  interesting  meanings  on  Devata..."



In  the  "Veda  Vani" of  Prof. S.K. Gupta, it  is very  interesting  to  read  the  different  meanings  of  "Devata."


We  also  know  that  mind,  in  its  function  of  reception  and  correlation,  is  the  ruling  and  governing  factor  of  all  sense-organs.

In  that  sense,  the  scripture  accepts  the  mind  as  the  king  of  the  'Indriya-s'  and  naturally,  its  presiding  deity  becomes  none  other  than  'Devendran',  the  king  of  'Deva-s.'

Briefly  then  the  mantram  means  the  conscious  actions,  performed  with  a  deep  desire  to  gain  the  fruits  thereof,  develop  the  necessary  traits  and  impressions  in  the  mental  plane.

The  outward  actions  …

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-11.. "Thus  Deva  means ........."



Thus  'Deva' means :-

1. He  who  sines;  gives  light;

2. He  who  bestows  wealth;

3. He  who  causes good  health;

4. He  who  shows  the  path;

5. He  who  makes  others  shine;

6.  He  who  sends  out  music;

7. He  who  imparts  knowledge  and  wisdom.


Next : Discussion-12. Summation....  "with  the  added  interesting  meanings  on  Devata..."

To be continued  ...


Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-10. "Scientific  fact  that  sound  .........."



Similarly,  we  know  the  scietific  fact that  sound  can  be  made  only  in  a  medium  of  'space'.

If  there  were  no  space,  we  could  not  make  sound,  and  if  sound  were  not,  we  would  have  no  object  to  be  illuminated  by  the  ear  and  so,  the  organ  of  sound  can  function  only  when  it  is  presided  over  and  blessed  by  the  'element'  (  bhutam )  'Space'
( Akasam ).



Thus,  each  'indriyam'  (sense)   has  its  own  'devata,'  meaning,  that  it  has  its  own  necessary  condition  to  function.

These  presiding  deities  are  called  "as  Devatas  or  Devas,"  in  Sanskrit  terminology.

This  term   'Deva'  has  in  the  scriptural  language  something  like…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-9.  "Sense organs........"


It  is  well  known  that  the  organ  of  vision,  the  eye,  or  the  sense-organ  of  sound,  the  ear,  cannot  function  unless  they  are  brought  into  play  in  a  medium  of  light  or  space.



If  the  Light-Principle  were  not  in  the  world,  we  would  not  be  able  to  make  use  of  the  instrument  called  'eyes'  for,  the  'eye'  can  see  forms  only  when  the  forms  are  in  a  medium  of  light.



If  the  world  is  eternally  in  darkness,  the  entire  humanity  would  have  been  blind  although  we  may  have  the  organ  of  vision.


Next : Discussion-10. "Scientific  factor  of  sound  .........."

To be continued  .....





Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-8. "Similarity  of  example  with  the  mantram  ......"


Similarly,  a  very  sacred  act,  performed  with  deep  sincerity,  moulds  the  performer's  mental  structure  and  "Vasana"  contents.


This  is  so  beautifully  explained  in  this  Mantram,  when  the  Rishi  says  that  the  very  "ahuti"  in  the  form  of  ' Sun's  ray',  leads him  to  the  Lord  of  the  'Deva's'   ---- this  term  also  needs  a  background  understanding  of  the  "Vedantik  Prakriya."


Each  sense - organ  is  believed  by  the  'Sastra-s'   to  be  presided  over  by  onr  'Devata' ( element ).


Thus,  they  ( Rishi-s )  say  that  the  'eye'    is  presided  over  by  the  ' Sun'  ( Fire );  the  'ears' by  the  '…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-7. 'the above  example  on  death  is  ......'



Now,  let  us  enter  wherever  we  like  mentally  in  that  market  place  ....  Surely,  all  of  us  could  not  have  gone  mentally  to  one  and  the  same  place  in  the  market.

One  of  you  might  have  gone  to  a  book-stall,  another  to  a  shoe  shop,  and  still  another  to  a  cloth shop,  and  myself  to  a  coffee-house,  and  the  ladies,  all  must  have  gone  a  saree-shop.


Every  one of  us  had  the  freedom  to  walk  into  any  shop  there.

What  decided  in  each  one  that  we  must  go  only  to  that  shop,  each  of  us  had  gone  to?

For  example,  you  yourself  could  have  to  the  saree-shop  as  freely  as  I  walked  into  the  cofee-house,  and  yet,  the  natural  way  in  which  I Walked  into  the  coffee-hous…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.



Discussion-6. "Death is but ........."


Death  is  but  a  total  and  permanent  divorce  between   gross  body  and  subtle  content.

The  mind  and  the  intellect  equipment  constituting  the  subtle  body,  renounces  once  for  all,  its claim  on  a  given  structure  of  matter  and  with  the  reference  to  that  enert  matter-envelopment,
we  say,  it  is  dead.


For  example,  friends,  let  us  all  for  a  moment  mentally  go  from  our  discussion  to  some  distant  place.

Everyone  of  you  can  picture  yourself,  moving  on  the  platforms  of  crowded  market  place.

It  is  not  merely  a  feeling;  the  feeling  is  well  protected  by  your  reasoning  capacity.

Partially,  now  you  are  'dead  to  the  'DISCUSSION  CLASS.'


Next : Discussion-7. 'the above  example  on  de…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.



Discussion-5. "If  the  Sun  be  thus  .............'RAY OF THE SUN'......"  



If  the  Sun  be  thus  "a  bundle  of  our  'Karma  phala-s'  ( fruit  of  actions ),"  then  in  the  greatest  of  all  philosophical  text-books ---

the  Upanishad-s  Rishi-s  have  naturally  the  right  to  make  use  of  the  idioms  and  expressions,  as  they  used  in  this  Mantram.


In  the  light  of  the  above,  the  'ahuti'   in  the  form  of  the  'sun's  ray,'  guiding  the  performer  to  the  realms,  where  he  could  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  actions  is  perfectly  scientific  divinely  poetic,  "Ray  of  the  Sun"  would  then  be  a  term  denoting  the  very  'good  mental  impressions,'
created  in  the  minds  of  the  performer  during  con…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-4. Law  of  Karma  to  be  continued  .......  



Each  one  of  us,  according  to  the   'pregnant 'karma,'  is  here  commissioned  to  live  through  and  exhaust  the  fruits  of  one's  own  actions.

In  order  to  live  completely  and  fully  the  reactions  of  all  'Karma-s,'  done  by  everyone  of  us,  we  must  have  a  world,  constituted  and  planned  exactly  as  it  is  now.

We  have  already  found  that  the  conditions  here  on  the  globe  are  controlled  and  maintained  by  the  position,  intensity,  and  nature  of  the  Sun.


Thus,  philosophically  sun  is  but  "a  bundle  of  the  total  fruits  of   actions."
...............................................................................................................................


"I  k…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion - 3. " Law  of  Karma ......"



There  is  nothing  revolting  in  this  idea;  only  we  are  not  accustomed  to  this  novel  definition,  which  is  in  fact,  nothing  but  an  extension  and  an  amplification  of  the  knowledge  we  already  possess.


Our  limited  knowledge  on  the  behaviour  of  nature,  climatic  conditions,  etc.,  has  given  us  enough  data  to  believe  that  the  Sun  in  the  heaven  is  the  unquestioned  controller  of  the  life  of  this  globe.


'Loka'  means  a  field  of  experiences.

If  the  sun  were  a  few  yards  away  from  us  or  it  is  few  yards  nearer  to  us,  you  all  know,  what  a  total  revolution  it  would  make  on  the  world,  and  therefore,  also  the  very  quality  and  quantity  of  the  living  world  upon  this  globe.


Ne…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion-2.  " Sun  in  this  mantram    ......"



Philosophically,  the  sun  stands  not  for  the  self-effulgent,  ever-burning,  hot-orb  of  the  heavens  around  which  the  planets  and  stars  make  their  endless  pilgrimage,  but  it  represents  the  total  effects  of  all  'Karma-s  done  by  the  entire  living  generation  in  the  world  in  a  particular  period  of  time.


In  a  very  striking  manner,  this  idea  has  been  exhaustively  discussed  in  "Chandogya  Upanishad,  during  the  discussion  there  on  the  'Suryopasana' or  meditations  on  the  Sun."

Next : Discussion - 3. " Law  of  Karma ......"

To be continued   .....





Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.


Discussion- 1. "Karma kandam of  Veda-s ........."


Earlier,  the  Upanishad  pointed  out  the  governing  the  eternal  promises  of  'Karma-Kandam  or  the  ritualistic  portion  of  the  Vedam.

Now,  this  mantram  explains  that  when  one  has  strictly  followed,  as  per  all  the  rules,  the  rituals  advocated,  he  will  be  the  arch-angel  to  guide  the  departed  soul  to  the  realms  of  its  experiences,  its  own  fruits  and  actions.


The  Scripture  says  that  the  very  "ahuti" ---  potency,  in  the  form  of  a  sun;s  ray  would  guide  the  subtle  body ( the 'Atma' ).


The  mantram,  without  the  necessary  background  for  it,  would  read  as  though  it  is  some  fantastic  story,  believed   by  a  " a  humanity  at  its  childhood."



The  western…

Mundakopanishad : ( Attainment of heaven by performing 'Agnihotram' rirual properly ). Mantram-5 & 6.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-5 & 6.  ( Attainment  of  heaven  by  performing  'Agnihotram'  rirual  properly )


Mantram-5.



Eteshu  yas-carate  bhraja-maneshu  yatha-kalam  cahutayo  hyadadayan,


tam  nayantyetah  suryasya  rasmayo  yatra  devanam  patireko-dhivasah.


eteshu  =  into  these;

yah  =  he  ( who );

carate  =  moves;

bhraja-maneshu  =  shining;

yatha  kalam  =  in  proper  time;

ca  =  and;

ahutayah  =  oblations ( homa-drvyams );

hi  =  verily;

adadayam  =  offering  (  pouring  into  the  homagni );

tam  =  him;

nayanti  =  lead;

etah  =  these;

suryasya  =  of  the  sun;

rasmayah  =  rays;

yatra  =  where;

devanam  =  of  the  deva-s;

patih  =  Lord;

ekah  =  one;

adhivasah  =  dwelling  place.



" He  who  offers  oblations  ( homa-dravyam-s )  in  proper  time  into  these  shining  flames   ( homagni )  -- "HIM the Lord,"  the  oblations,  as  sun's  rrays,  lead  to  the  place  where  the  one  Lord  of  th…

Mundakopanishad : ( Seven tongues of fire ).Mantram-4.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-4. ( Seven  tongues  of  fire )


 Discussion-2. "Summation  ........"


Vedik  period  was  a  time  prior  to  the  beauty  embodiments,  as  in  "Rama  or  in  Krishna."


A  seeker  who  was  in  the  'workshop  of  Spiritualism'  had  to  learn  his  early  meditations  upon  the  different  kinds  of  flames  that  rose  from  the  sacrificial  fire  ( from  homakundam )  during  'Yajna-s  and  Yaga-s'.


The  fire,  you  must  remember,  was  the  idol  of  the  Vedik  period  to  worship  at  and  to  concentrate  upon.


It  is  by  concentrating  upon  the  different  flames  that  the  'Upanisha-students'  of  the  golden  age  of  "Bharatham  ( Hinduism )  sharpened  their  minds  and  intellects  to  soar  to  the  deathless  gloty  of  Vedik  perfections  and  knowledge.

ENDS Mantram-4.

Next - Mantram-5.

To be continued   ....




Mundakopanishad : ( Seven tongues of fire ).Mantram-4.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-4. ( Seven  tongues  of  fire )


 Discussion-1. "the significance  of  various  classifications  and  types  of  flames  ( fire )  in  the  Homa-kundam......."



The  real  import  and  the  significance  of  various  classifications  and  types  of  flames  discussed  herein  have  no  parallel  in  modern  science,  since  the  western  world  has  not  taken  fire  as  a  topic  of  enquiry.

And  yet,  to  some  extent,  we  know  the  different  areas  in  a  candle-flames  discussed  in  elementary  physics-texts.

Whether  there  are  any  special  significances  attached  to  these  different  types  of  flames  or  not,  it  is  not  within  our  knowledge  today  to  declare.

However,  in  this  'mantram'   we   can  find  not  only  the  scientific  approach  but  also  the  thoroughness  with  which  the  ancient  Rishi-s  dealt  with  their  topics.

The 'Mantram' is  a  clear  example  where…

Mundakopanishad : ( Seven tongues of fire ).Mantram-4.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-4. ( Seven  tongues  of  fire )



"kali  karali  ca  manojava  ca  sulohita  ya  ca  sudhumra-varna,


sphulingini  visvaruci  ca  devi  lelaya-mana  iti  sapta  jihvah."




kali  =  kali ( the black  one );

karali  =  karali  ( the  terrific  one );

ca  =  and;

manojava  =  as  swift  as  mind;

ca  =  and;

sulohita  =  deep-red-coloured;

ya  =  who;

ca  =  also;

sudhumra  varna  =   the  smoke - coloured;

sphulingini  =  the  sparkling;

visvaruci  devi  =  the  variegated,  the  bright,  all  shining;

ca  =  and;

lelaya-mana  =  flickering;

iti  =  that;

sapta  =  seven;

jihvah  =  tongues.



"The  seven  flickering  tongues  ( jwala-s )  of  flames  are :

1. Kali,  the  black  one;

2. Karali,  the  terrific  one;

3. Manojava,  the  swift-as-mind  one;

4. Sulohita,  the  deep-red  one;

5. Sudhumra-varna,  the  smoke-coloured  one;

6. Sphulingini,  the  sparkling  one;

7. and  Visvaruci,***  the  bright  all  shining …

Mundakopanishad : ( Harmful results of rituals performed wrongly ).Mantram-3.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-3. ( Harmful  results  of  rituals  performed  wrongly )


 Discussion-3. "Summation" ....


At  the  same  time,  I  must  add  that  to  you  and  to  me  the  'Karma-s' as  they  are  now  available  for  us  are  very  very  important.

Selfless  service,  japam,  puja,  Sandya-vandanam,  meditation,  etc.,  are  very  important  to  a  seeker  in  his  early  stages  of  preparation

It  is  only  through  these  'Karma-s  that  one  gains  a  well-integrated  personality.

It  is  only  then  that  he  comes  to  feel  the  cumbersome  brutalities  of  the  rigid  rulesof  ritualism.



A  temple  fulfils  itself  successfully  in  a  'bhaktan'  when  he  comes  to  inquire  into  the  nature  of  'Godhood,'  the  nature  of  himself,  the  structure  of  the  world  and  the  relationship  between  these  three.


At  this  moment  the  integrated  personality  of  the  bhaktan  though  physi…

Mundakopanishad : ( Harmful results of rituals performed wrongly ).Mantram-3.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-3. ( Harmful  results  of  rituals  performed  wrongly )


Discussion-2. "Seven  worlds"........


The  seven  worlds  can  be  considered  as  the  seven  generations;  three  ancestors  and  three  descendants,  and  himself,

Thus,  a  'ritualistic  karmam,' not  done  properly,  would  have  consequences  not  only  upon  oneself  but  upon  one's  own  father  grandfather  and  great-grandfather  and  upon  one's  own  son,  grandson,  and  great  grandson!!!




In  short,  the  Upanishad  is  severely  emphasising  the  drudgery  of  rules  in  ritualism  and  is  trying  to  wean  the  disciple  away  from  all  'desire-prompted  karma-s.'  

Only  when  the  mind  and  the  intellect  have  thus  totally  renounced their  desires  and  their  preoccupation  with  desire-prompted  actions,  can  we  hope  to  meditate  upon  and  rise  above  into  the  subtler  worlds  of  constructive  med…

Mundakopanishad : ( Harmful results of rituals performed wrongly ).Mantram-3.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-3. ( Harmful  results  of  rituals  performed  wrongly )


Discussion-1. " do's  and  dont's " ....


In  this  mantram,  the  teacher  by  exhaustive  enumeration  of  all  the  minute  "do's " and  "don'ts"  is  aiming  at  the  creation  of b a  desired  effect  upon  the  disciple.

No  man  of  discrimination  with  an  awakened  intellect  would  need  a  greater  argument  to  persuade  him  to  give  up  the  "blind-ritualistic-path."

The  'Katma-s' are  limited  on  all  sides.

If  'Agnihotra' is  not  followed  by  a  strict  adherence  to  all  the  above-mentioned  subsidiary  acts  of  charity  and  kindness,  seasonal  rituals  and  self  discipline,  in  itself  can,  not  only  give  its  promised  blessing,  but  "it  shall" says  the  learned  Master  of  the  Upanishad,  " destroy  the  seven  worlds***  of  the  performer.&q…

Mundakopanishad : ( Harmful results of rituals performed wrongly ).Mantram-3.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-3. ( Harmful  results  of  rituals  performed  wrongly )



Yasyagni-hotram-adarsam-apaurna-masam


acatur-masyam-anagrayanam-atithi-varjitam  ca


ahutam-avaisva-devam-avidhina  hutam


asaptamams-tasya  lokan  hinasti.



yasya  -  whose;

agnihotram  =  agnihotram  sacrifice;

adarsam  =  not  accompanied  by  'Darsa'  : i.e,  rights  and  sacrifices  to  be  performed  on  new  moon  day;

apaurna-masam  =  not  accompanied  by  sacrificials  rites  to  be  performed  on  full  moon  day;

acatur-masyam  =  not  accompanied  by  sacrificials  rights  to  be  performed  during  the  four  months  of  autumn  season;

anagrayanam  =  not  accompanied  by  first  fruit  offerings  at  harvest  time;

atithi-varjitam  =  unattended  by  guests;

ca  =  and;

ahutam  =  without  offerings;

avaisva-devam  =  without  the  worship  of  Visvadeva-s  (  which  includes  feeding  of  birdsand  animals;

avidhina  =  not  according  to  scriptu…

Mundakopanishad : ( Description of the 'Agnihotra' sacrifice ).Mantram-2.

Mundaka-Upanishad


Chapter-1.


Section-2. ( Rituals )


Mantram-2. [ Description  of  the  'Agnihotra'  sacrifice  ( Homam ) ].


Discussion-2. 'Karmam' ........


The  mantram  indicates  that  the  'Karmam,'  itself  limited,  has  its  own  rules  ordering  'where'     and   'when'   it  is  to  be  performed


The  aim  of  the  teacher  seems  to  be  when  the  entire  section  is  read  together  as  a  whole,  only  to  point  out  to  the  disciple  that  the  'karmam' is  painful,  complicated  and  difficult.


The  laboriousness  of  the  rituals  which  becomes  a  shackle  upon  a  full-grown  seeker,  in  the  flight  across  the  realms  of  the  higher  meditation,  is  vividly  brought  in  the  following  mantram-3.


Next : Mantram-3.

To be continued   .....